fuente_corona_mileniumpark

 

Intersubjetividad tiene que ver de cómo es posible entenderse entre personas, es el lugar que permite esa mutua comprensión, es un espacio común de interacción entre los distintos sujetos. (Rubén Prada Urdaneta, 2007)

Intersubjetividad, necesariamente; para construir nuevos significados con la comunidad,y que estos nuevos significados, generen transformación y cambio social.

Por ello uso esta fotografía de Miguel Roa, un grupo de gente está en un momento idóneo para interactuar intersubjetivamente, y construir significados. Por ello son necesarias las técnicas cooperativas y grupales de animación dialógica, y además aquellas que creen un clima de humor, desbloqueo, confianza, comunicación…etc.

Intersubjetividad, es el concepto que más me está haciendo leer en este tiempo. Desconocido hasta ahora para mi, supernecesario para quien como yo, aspira a seguir militando en la educación y animación social, la creatividad y la espiritualidad.

Intersubjetividad, descubierta por Fichte, estudiada por Hegel y Husserl; desde la filosofía fenomenológica a la filosofía del personalismo y su introducción en las ciencias sociales en la sociología fenomenológica de Alfred Schütz hasta la perspectiva sociocrítica y comunicativa de FreireHabermas; desde la pedagogía y psicología del aprendizaje constructivista  de  Vygotski a la  psicología social , contemponaneizándose en Wetsch y Rommetveit y en el concepto de aprendizaje dialógico de Ramón Flecha.

Pero que es intersubjetividad?

Intersubjetividad tiene que ver con el acuerdo, con la creación de espacios compartidos para el aprendizaje, y con interacción social. Pero sobre todo tiene que ver con la construcción social de la mente y el conocimiento. La intersubjetividad pone enfasis en que la cognición compartida y el consenso son esenciales en la formación de ideas (significados) y relaciones.

La intersubjetividad,en psicología, es reconocida como intersubjetividad primaria, donde la relación del niño con el adulto, supone y según la teoría vygostkyana de la zona de desarrollo próximo, un andamiaje, gracias al cual en esa interacción, el niño aprende del adulto, el adulto enseña al niño, y en la intersubjetividad secundaria, el niño interacciona con el adulto a través de la acción con el objeto.

Pero estamos en otros tiempos, y aunque la intersubjetividad se descubre desde el siglo XVIII, eso no quiere decir, que no sea intrínseca a la comunidad.

Hasta hoy los expertos constructivistas en aprendizaje significativo ( Jerome Bruner, David Ausubel y  Jean Piaget) siempre nos han dicho que construímos el significado, osea que aprendemos mediante la acción humana de los sujetos. Y es por ello citados por el Ministerio de Educación Español como referentes.

Pero Ramón Flecha nos dice que esa concepción del aprendizaje ya está superada por la concepción freireana y comunicativa del aprendizaje dialógico, en la que aprendemos por la comunicación entre los sujetos y por la intersubjetividad. En la intersubjetividad se dan los siguientes elementos: consenso, acción dialógica, acuerdo y comprensión.

La perspectiva comunicativa deFreire y Habermas es posterior y superadora de la constructivista en que se basa el aprendizaje significativo. La concepción de la acción humana como dotada de significado por los sujetos fue ya desarrollada por Weber (1969/1904-1905) a principios de siglo. Tras continuarla Schütz (1974/1962) en los años cuarenta y cincuenta, fueron dos de sus alumnos quienes popularizaron con la publicación de La construcción social de la realidad en 1996 (Berger & Luckmann 1968/1966). Simultáneamente, otros autores y aportaciones estaban trabajando en la misma perspectiva. Aunque Schütz había entrado en contacto con la tradicción interaccionista (Mead 1982/1934), no llegó a transformar en comunicativa su concepción. Fue en los años ochenta, con la publicación de la teoría de la acción comunicativa de Habermas (1987/1981), cuando las ciencias sociales emprendieron un nuevo rumbo clarificando que la construcción de significados era generada por la comunicación entre todos los subjetos, por la intersubjetividad. La concepción constructivista está en relación con los desarrollos de las ciencias sociales anteriores a 1981. La concepción freireana de aprendizaje dialógico está en la misma orientación que los desarrollos de los años ochenta y noventa. Si los planes educativos se basan en el aprendizaje significativo en lugar de en el dialógico no es porque ya hayan superado la obra freireana, sino porque aún no han llegado a ella. “Las aportaciones de Paulo Freire a la educación y las ciencias sociales”. Ramón Flecha.

O sea construímos socialmente los significados para la transformación y el cambio social por la comunicación humana, una comunicación humana donde haya consenso y los sujetos se comuniquen intrapsicológicamente (autonomía) e interpsicológicamente (comprensión y escucha). Por todo ello: intersubjetividad, necesariamente.

 

*Fotografía: “Fuente Crown en el Parque Millenium en Chicago”

 Autor: Miguel Roa Guzmán

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Author: Pedro Torres

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    39 Responses

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    Hola, me interesó y me gustó mucho su post.

    ¿Me podrías contestar la siguiente pregunta?

    Así como hay realidades objetivas y realidades subjetivas, ¿podríamos estar hablando de una realidad intersubjetiva? Es decir, ¿sería adecuado el uso de esta expresión?

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